In part this is due to Indian resistance, in part to the location of river valleys and passes, in part to the unequal force of the centers of frontier attraction. Desperadoes were not always the colorful or spectacular kind. It was democratic and nonsectional, if not national; “easy, tolerant, and contented;” rooted strongly in material prosperity. It is characterized by the westward movement of European settlers from their original settlements on the Atlantic coast in the early 17th century to the Far West in the late 19th century. IV; Parkman, Oregon Trail; Hall, The West (Cincinnati, 1848); Pierce, Incidents of Western Travel; Murray, Travels in North America; Lloyd, Steamboat Directory (Cincinnati, 1856); “Forty Days in a Western Hotel” (Chicago), in Putnam’s Magazine, December, 1894; Mackay, The Western World, II, ch. The question is elaborated further in, for example, existential philosophy and phenomenology. 4. You talk about one country's border or frontier withanother. , “No subject,” said Henry Clay, “which has presented itself to the present, or perhaps any preceding, Congress, is of greater magnitude than that of the public lands.” When we consider the far-reaching effects of the Government’s land policy upon political, economic, and social aspects of American life, we are disposed to agree with him. The powers of the general council and the officers were, chiefly, the determination of peace and war with the Indians, the regulation of Indian trade, the purchase of Indian lands, and the creation and government of new settlements as a security against the Indians. Washington desired to settle a State at a time in the Northwest; Jefferson would reserve from settlement the territory of his Louisiana purchase north of the thirty-second parallel, in order to offer it to the Indians in exchange for their settlements east of the Mississippi. 50. 25. Travelers of the eighteenth century found the “cowpens” among the canebrakes and peavine pastures of the South, and the “cow drivers” took their droves to Charleston, Philadelphia, and New York. Boom and bust on the mining frontier.The pattern was the same almost everywhere. The trading post left the unarmed tribes at the mercy of those that had purchased fire-arms—a truth which the Iroquois Indians wrote in blood, and so the remote and unvisited tribes gave eager welcome to the trader. The rebels control the frontier and the surrounding area. Those who settled the West lived by a rough-hewn code made up in part of values they brought with them and values that arose from the lives they lived. The Scotch Irish and the Palatine Germans, or “Pennsylvania Dutch,” furnished the dominant element in the stock of the colonial frontier. Colonial travelers agree in remarking on the phlegmatic characteristics of the colonists. Men like Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp became famous for enforcing the law, and theirs was a daunting task. 217–219, where a similar analysis is made for 1796. I say this with perfect knowledge, for it has been avowed to me by gentlemen from the West over and over again.  Travelers at the close of the War of 1812 met droves of more than a thousand cattle and swine from the interior of Ohio going to Pennsylvania to fatten for the Philadelphia market. Tidewater Virginia and South Carolina gerrymandered those colonies to insure the dominance of the coast in their legislatures. The tax-gatherer is viewed as a representative of oppression. The frontier army post, serving to protect the settlers from the Indians, has also acted as a wedge to open the Indian country, and has been a nucleus for settlement. They have already so occupied in many places. The “Frontier” is defined as “a region at the edge of a settled area”. Before long he has gone to planting Indian corn and plowing with a sharp stick; he shouts the war cry and takes the scalp in orthodox Indian fashion. * * * Let no man at the East quiet himself and dream of liberty, whatever may become of the West. Traders followed the Delaware and Shawnese Indians to the Ohio as early as the end of the first quarter of the century. There is not tabula rasa. 7. The 19th century was the age of imperialism. The frontier was found in these mining camps and the ranches of the Great Plains. McKinley National Park was created to prevent the destruction of wild life that had occurred in the American West. Even a cursory reading of the plan proposed by the congress reveals the importance of the frontier. And yet they are all needed immediately in their utmost perfection and power. 53. Not only would there result a more adequate conception of American development and characteristics, but invaluable additions would be made to the history of society. It had a wide mixture of nationalities, a varied society, the mixed town and county system of local government, a varied economic life, many religious sects. The first frontier had to meet its Indian question, its question of the disposition of the public domain, of the means of intercourse with older settlements, of the extension of political organization, of religious and educational activity. Before this process revealed its results the western portion of the South, which was akin to Pennsylvania in stock, society, and industry, showed tendencies to fall away from the faith of the fathers into internal improvement legislation and nationalism. See the suggestive paper by Prof. Jesse Macy, The Institutional Beginnings of a Western State. Men were prized for their self-reliance, survival skills, and reliability. Most were farmers, skilled and unskilled laborers, miners and prospectors, and, after the Civil War, former soldiers all looking for a better life. The buffalo trail became the Indian trail, and this because the trader’s “trace;” the trails widened into roads, and the roads into turnpikes, and these in turn were transformed into railroads. Western frontier life, folklore and reality of the lives of the men and women who participated in the last phase of the settlement of the U.S. frontier. At the same time he brought forward a plan for distributing among all the States of the Union the proceeds of the sales of the public lands. Steadily the trader passed westward, utilizing the older lines of French trade. Cattle ranching was a tough business that gave the West its cowboys. Efforts to make this domain a source of revenue, and to withhold it from emigrants in order that settlement might be compact, were in vain. The newly civilized land now bordered on the frontier. 2. an international boundary or the area (often fortified) immediately inside the boundary. There were many who admired their courage and skills and there were those, among them agents of the Indian Bureau, who attempted to mitigate their destruction. A writer in The Home Missionary (1850), p. 239, reporting Wisconsin conditions, exclaims: “Think of this, people of the enlightened East. The competition of the unexhausted, cheap, and easily tilled prairie lands compelled the farmer either to go west and continue the exhaustion of the soil on a new frontier, or to adopt intensive culture. And in California, the Chinese came to work as laborers on the transcontinental railroad. Governor Glenn, of South Carolina, writes in the middle of the eighteenth century: “Our trade with New York and Philadelphia was of this sort, draining us of all the little money and bills we could gather from other places for their bread, flour, beer, hams, bacon, and other things of their produce, all which, except beer, our new townships begin to supply us with, which are settled with very industrious and thriving Germans. The legislation which most developed the powers of the National Government, and played the largest part in its activity, was conditioned on the frontier. The Futures of History from the Liberal Arts College Perspective, AHA Colloquium Information for Those Accepted for the 2021 Program, AHA Council Annual Meeting Travel Grant Recipients, Jerry Bentley World History Travel Grant Recipients, Beveridge Family Teaching Prize Recipients, William and Edwyna Gilbert Award Recipients, J. Franklin Jameson Fellowship Recipients, Helen & Howard R. Marraro Prize Recipients, Fellowship in Aerospace History Recipients, National Institute of Social Sciences Annual Meeting Travel Grant Recipients, Nancy Lyman Roelker Mentorship Award Recipients, Theodore Roosevelt-Woodrow Wilson Award Recipients, Dorothy Rosenberg Phi Beta Kappa Travel Grant Recipients, Award for Scholarly Distinction Recipients, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2019-June 30, 2020, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2018-June 30, 2019, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2017-June 30, 2018, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2015-June 30, 2016, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2014-June 30, 2015, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2013-June 30, 2014, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2012-June 30, 2013, Donors to the Association, July 1, 2011-June 30, 2012, Policies and Documents of the Association, The Significance of the Frontier in American History. 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