There, Germanicus and some of his men visited the site of the disastrous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, and began burying the remains of the Roman soldiers that had been left in the open. The king of Cappadocia died too, whereupon Germanicus sent Quintus Veranius to organize Cappadocia as a province – a profitable endeavor as Tiberius was able to reduce the sales tax down to .5% from 1%. A fort on the Lippe called Castra Aliso was besieged, but the attackers dispersed on sight of Roman reinforcements. Unlike his adoptive brother Drusus, who received no recognition beyond being the son of a triumphator, Germanicus played a distinguished part in the celebration and was given the opportunity to display his consular insignia and triumphal ornaments. Sometime this year, he received word from Segestes, who was held prisoner by Arminius' forces and needed help. [41], Book 1 of Annals extensively focuses on the mutinies of the legions in Pannonia and Germany (AD 14). This forced Germanicus to invade Germania again. He was able to unite a group of Germanic tribes together to fight the Romans. De zilveren/ gouden/ briljanten G’s zijn bij de jubilarissen thuis afgegeven met in achtneming van de coronamaatregelen. Tacitus says this shows the true grief that the people of Rome felt, and this also shows that by this time the people already knew the proper way to commemorate dead princes without an edict from a magistrate. However, Eusebius, our main reference for this, does not name Germanicus, and Tacitus makes no reference to this occasion either, which would have required Germanicus to make two trips to Greece within a year. [87], Suetonius was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. Life Germanicus. - Arminius ordered his men to retreat to the woods and launched his ambush. His forces met those of Arminius on the plains of Idistaviso , by the Weser River near modern Rinteln , in an engagement called the Battle of the Weser River . [29], In Germany and Illyricum, the legions were in mutiny. [40] Germanicus' forces went through Bructeri territory, where a general, Lucius Stertinius, recovered the lost eagle of the XIX Legion from among the equipment of the Bructeri after routing them in battle. [note 7] Germanicus entered the province in his capacity as proconsul without first seeking permission to do so. [16][14], Roman forces took the initiative in AD 9, and pushed into Dalmatia. Late in 14, the Roman prince Germanicus resumed the offensive, which provoked a reaction from the Germanic leader Arminius, who was able to unite several tribes. Germanicus sent Piso a letter formally renouncing their friendship (amicitia). Ultimately, however, his great power disturbed the tribal aristocracy so much that in 21 CE Arminius was murdered. [61] He visited the sites associated with his adoptive grandfather Augustus and his natural grandfather Mark Antony, before crossing the sea to Lesbos and then to Asia Minor. Germanicus married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. Arminius was a chief of the Cherusci. [21][4] According to Cassius Dio, Germanicus was a popular quaestor because he acted as an advocate as much in capital jurisdiction cases before Augustus as he did before lesser judges in standard quaestiones (trials). Germanicus’ expedition was primarily intended to soothe wounds and trauma that were still fresh among the Romans. During this period, Germanicus' detachments were in action against the Mazaei, whom he defeated. Commemorative arches were built in his honor and not just at Rome, but at the frontier on the Rhine and in Asia where he had governed in life. He sailed down the Illyrian coast of the Adriatic Sea to Greece. [note 5] The procession displayed replicas of mountains, rivers, and battles; and the war was considered closed. The Germans destroyed the nearby mound and altar dedicated to his father Drusus, but he had them both restored and celebrated funerary games with his legions in honor of his father. As proconsul, Germanicus was dispatched with Tiberius to defend the empire against the Germans in AD 11. [18][19], After a distinguished start to his military career, Germanicus returned to Rome in late AD 9 to personally announce his victory. The Twelve Caesars details a biographical history of the principate from the birth of Julius Caesar to the death of Domitian in AD 96. [78] Many Romans, in the account of Tacitus, considered Germanicus to be their equivalent to Alexander the Great, and believed that he would have easily surpassed the achievements of Alexander had he become emperor. [26][27], On 23 October AD 12, Tiberius held a triumph for his victory over the Pannonians and Dalmatians, which he had postponed on account of the defeat of Varus at Teutoburg Forest. His actions had increased his fame, and he had become very popular with the Roman people. When news of the mutiny reached the army of the Upper Rhine under Gaius Silius (the Legions II Augusta, XIII Gemina, XVI Gallica, and XIV Gemina) a meeting was held to meet their demands. He had dealt a significant blow to Rome's enemies, quelled an uprising of troops, and returned lost standards to Rome. Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19), commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire.He was born in Rome, Italia, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. [3] He took the agnomen Germanicus, awarded posthumously to his father in honor of his victories in Germania, at which point he nominally became head of the family in 9 BC. Segestes was a nobleman of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci involved in the events surrounding the Roman attempts to conquer northern Germany during the reign of Roman Emperor Augustus. The campaigns of Tiberius and Germanicus in Germania in the years AD 11–12, combined with an alliance with the Marcomannic federation of Marbod, prevented the German coalition from crossing the Rhine and invading Gaul and Italy. As a boy, Arminius is kidnapped from Germania and raised to be a Roman soldier; years later, he must choose between the Empire and the land he calls home. [28][39], Arminius called his tribe, the Cherusci, and the surrounding tribes to arms. 23. He had captured a few important prisoners, but Arminius was still at large. [2] In book eight of his Natural History, Pliny connects Germanicus, Augustus, and Alexander as fellow equestrians: when Alexander's horse Bucephalus died he named a city, Bucephalia, in his honor. He avenged the Roman Empire's defeat in the Teutoburg Forest and retrieved two of the three legionary eagles that had been lost during the battle. Word reached Germanicus that Arminius and his allies were regrouping at the barrier and receiving thousands of reinforcements. Bato the Daesitiate withdrew from Pannonia to Dalmatia, where he occupied the mountains of Bosnia and began conducting counter-attacks, most likely against the indigenous people who sided with the Romans. His paternal grandmother was Livia, who had divorced his grandfather, Tiberius Claudius Nero around 24 years before Germanicus' birth, and was married to the emperor Augustus. It serves to contrast the "old-fashioned" Republican values assigned to Germanicus, and the imperial values possessed by Tiberius. [30], The army of the Lower Rhine sought an increase in pay, the reduction of their service to 16 years (down from 20) to mitigate the hardship of their military tasks, and vengeance against the centurions for their cruelty. Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent general of the Roman Empire, known for his campaigns in Germania.The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia the Younger, Germanicus was born into an influential branch of the patrician gens Claudia. Despite his defeat, Arminius still held a high position among the Germanic tribes. Herminones). He returned to Syria by summer, where he found that Piso had either ignored or revoked his orders to the cities and legions. Germanicus' forces withdrew and returned to the Rhine. He was elected consul for the first time in 12 CE. In winter, Germanicus returned to Rome, where he was, after five mandates as quaestor and despite never having been aedile or praetor, appointed consul for the year AD 12. The Pisones were longtime supporters of the Claudians, and had allied themselves with Octavian early on. [4][5] By AD 4 he was adopted as Tiberius' son and heir. There were abundant eulogies and reminders of his fine character and a particular eulogy was given by Tiberius himself in the Senate. Probably for the same reason, Augustus arranged for his granddaughter Vipsania Agrippina  to marry Germanicus. [73][74], The historians Tacitus and Suetonius record the funeral and posthumous honors of Germanicus. He then sent a deputy to subdue the remaining districts and returned to Tiberius. CVV Germanicus wenst jullie allen, ondanks alle maatregelen, fijne feestdagen en een gezond 2021. Germanicus' troops released Segestes and took his pregnant daughter, Arminius' wife Thusnelda, into captivity. In accordance with the precedent set by Augustus, Agrippa had been given command of those same provinces in the east when Agrippa was the intended successor to the empire. Arminius’ wife Thusnelda, her little son Thumelicus and her brother Segimuntos were among them. They destroyed a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Na diverse moordpartijen te hebben aangericht onder nietsvermoedende Marsen en de Chatten, begint Germanicus een achtervolging op Arminius. In accordance with Roman naming conventions, he adopted the name "Julius Caesar" while retaining his agnomen, becoming Germanicus Julius Caesar. That day the Senate also dispatched a delegation to Germanicus' camp to send its condolences for the death of his grandfather and to grant him proconsular imperium. Again he marched back victorious and at the direction of Tiberius, accepted the title of Imperator. All 8 legions were given money, even if they did not demand it. [note 6] Germanicus was given imperium maius (extraordinary command) over the other governors and commanders of the area he was to operate; however, Tiberius had replaced the governor of Syria with Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, who was meant to be his helper (adiutor), but turned out to be hostile. From there he commanded eight legions, about one-third of the entire Roman army, which he led against the Germanic tribes in his campaigns from AD 14 to 16. He was accompanied, among his other generals, by Germanicus, for whom he had obtained the triumphal regalia. He held that office until AD 11, and was elected consul for the first time in AD 12. The Roman commander Germanicus was the opponent of Arminius in 14–16 CE Though the shock at the slaughter was enormous, the Romans immediately began a slow, systematic process of preparing for the reconquest of the country. Augustus, in 13 CE, appointed Germanicus as proconsul of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, and entire Gaul and he commanded eight legions of the Roman army. On the other side, pro-Roman Cherusci, like Segestes, the father of Thusnelda and Segimuntos, were among the invited guests of the event. At his funeral, there were no procession statues of Germanicus. [60] Not waiting to take up his consulship in Rome, he left after his triumph but before the end of AD 17. The legacy left by Augustus to the troops was to be doubled and discharged. His open and affable manners made him popular with the soldiers, but he remained loyal to the emperor. Germanicus died soon after on 10 October of that year. Germanicus, born in 15 BC, was a favorite of the Emperor Augustus, who saw him as a possible heir if anything happened to his own adopted son Tiberius. On the way back to their winter quarters at Castra Vetera, they pushed successfully through the opposing tribes (Bructeri, Tubantes, and Usipetes) between the Marsi and the Rhine. [13][14], By the time Germanicus had arrived in Pannonia, the rebels had resorted to raiding from the mountain fortresses to which they had withdrawn. Livillawas his younger sister and the future Emperor Claudius was his younger brother. Julius Caesar Germanicus – die door de Senaat bekleed is met een imperium proconsulare, waardoor hij het gezag heeft over de beide legati Augusti pro praetore en hun respectievelijke legers. [36] When news arrived of his raid, Tiberius commemorated his services in the Senate with elaborate, but insincere praise: the proceedings gave him joy that the mutiny had been suppressed, but anxiety at the glory and popularity afforded to Germanicus. He often appears in literature as the archetypal ideal Roman. At a location Tacitus calls the pontes longi ("long causeways"), in boggy lowlands somewhere near the Ems, Arminius' troops attacked the Romans. The riotous army figures into the unpredictable wrath of the Roman people giving Tiberius the chance to reflect on what it means to lead. [37] Ovid's Fasti dates the Senate vote of Germanicus' triumph to 1 January AD 15. The battle marked the end of a three-year series of campaigns by Germanicus in Germania. Attention is paid particularly to their leadership styles, i.e., in their relationship with the masses. Germanicus heeft zijn 60, 50 en 25 jarige jubilarissen in het zonnentje gezet. As for his popularity, he was popular enough that the mutinous legions of the Rhine attempted to proclaim him emperor in AD 14; however, he remained loyal and led them against the German tribes instead. For example, he replaces the opening hymn to Zeus with a passage in honor of the Roman emperor. Then Germanicus returned to Mainz together with Segestes and his resisting daughter Thusnelda, Arminius’ wife. Deze heeft zich in de coronamaatregelen tijdelijk uitgesteld. Germanicus (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire.He was born in Rome, Italia, to Nero Claudius Drusus and his wife Antonia Minor.His original name at birth was either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father, or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle, the second Roman emperor Tiberius. [89], The Annals by Tacitus is one of the most detailed accounts of Germanicus' campaigns against the Germans. The Roman soldiers involved on the battlefield honored Tiberius as Imperator, and raised a pile of arms as a trophy with the names of the defeated tribes inscribed beneath them. [8][9][10][11] The couple had nine children: Nero Julius Caesar; Drusus Caesar; Tiberius Julius Caesar (not to be confused with emperor Tiberius); a child of unknown name (normally referred to as Ignotus); Gaius the Elder; Gaius the Younger (the future emperor "Caligula"); Agrippina the Younger (the future empress); Julia Drusilla; and Julia Livilla. Germanicus is painted as a competent leader able to handle the masses whereas Tiberius is indecisive and envious. [50][51], Germanicus' successes in Germany had made him popular with the soldiers. He sacked their capital Mattium (modern Maden near Gudensberg), pillaged their countryside, then returned to the Rhine. He fought against the Pannonians under Tiberius, quelled the mutiny in the Rhine, and led three successful campaigns into Germania. [note 3] He brought with him an army of levied citizens and former slaves to reinforce Tiberius at Siscia, his base of operations in Illyricum. Arminius initially lured Germanicus' cavalry into a trap and inflicted minor casualties, until successful fighting by the Roman infantry caused the Germans to break and flee into the forest. The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia the Younger, Germanicus was born into an influential branch of the patrician gens Claudia. He restored a temple of Spes,[58] and allegedly won a chariot race in the name of Tiberius at the Olympic games that year. 18 BC/17 BC in Magna Germania; d. AD 21 in Germania) was a chieftain of the Cherusci. Germans Defeated. Ondertussen ( 16 na Christus) is de controverse tussen Segestes, die tegen zijn wil in de oorlog is meegesleept, en Arminius op zijn hoogtepunt beland. [57], Tiberius gave money out to the people of Rome in Germanicus' name, and Germanicus was scheduled to hold the consulship next year with the emperor. Hij stond aan het hoofd van een verbond van Germaanse stammen, dat erin slaagde de Romeinen een vernietigende slag toe te brengen in de Slag bij het Teutoburgerwoud, en … De legati handelen in feite in naam van de princeps die zijn imperium over hen dan weer heeft afgestaan aan Germanicus, de ex-consul ordinarius. [59], Germanicus had a busy year in 17. The Senate had his property proscribed, forbade mourning on his account, removed images of his likeness, such as statues and portraits, and his name was erased from the base of one statue in particular as part of his damnatio memoriae. Augustus therefore forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus. Germanicus was born in Rome in 15 BC. Towards the end of the year, additional reinforcements arrived; three legions from Moesia commanded by Aulus Caecina Severus, and two legions with Thracian cavalry and auxiliary troops from Anatolia commanded by Silvanus. The continued support of the Pisones and his own friendship to Piso made Tiberius hesitant to hear the case himself. Fijne feestdagen. In 37, Germanicus' only remaining son, Caligula, became emperor and renamed September Germanicus in honor of his father. Livia persuaded him to choose Tiberius, his stepson from Livia's first marriage to Tiberius Claudius Nero, instead. It was here at the barrier that Arminius planned to defeat Germanicus Caesar. [87][88], Despite the poetics attached to Germanicus by ancient authors, it is accepted by historians such as Anthony Barrett that Germanicus was an able general. [70], The death of Germanicus in dubious circumstances greatly affected Tiberius' popularity in Rome, leading to the creation of a climate of fear in Rome itself. The story is told by the Roman historian Tacitus. 0. Arminius initially caught Germanicus' cavalry in a trap, inflicting minor casualties, but the Roman infantry reinforced the rout and checked them. The endurance of the Principate is challenged in these narratives, by the emperor's jealous trepidation toward competent commanders such as Germanicus. When it became clear Bato would not surrender, Tiberius assaulted the fortress and captured him. [63][64][65], Having settled these matters he traveled to Cyrrhus, a city in Syria between Antioch and the Euphrates, where he spent the rest of AD 18 in the winter quarters of the Legion X Fretensis. [54], At the beginning of AD 17, Germanicus returned to the capital and on May 26 he celebrated a triumph for his victories over the Germans. He wrote his account in the early years of the second century. The pacification of the Breuci, with their large population and resources, was a significant victory for the Romans, who would be reinforced by eight cohorts of Breuci auxiliaries towards the end of the war. As well as being the great-nephew of Augustus, he was the nephew of the second emperor, Tiberius, his son Gaius would become the third emperor, Caligula, who would be succeeded by Germanicus' brother Claudius, and his grandson would become the fifth emperor, Nero. the enemy were slaughtered from the fifth hour of daylight to nightfall, and for ten miles the ground was littered with corpses and weapons. Yet, in a show of clemency not unlike that of the emperor, the Senate had Piso's property returned and divided equally between his two sons, on condition that his daughter Calpurnia be given 1,000,000 sesterces as dowry and a further 4,000,000 as personal property. Tiberius made allowances for Piso to summon witnesses of all social orders, including slaves, and he was given more time to plea than the prosecutors, but it made no difference: before the trial was over Piso died, ostensibly by suicide, but Tacitus supposes Tiberius may have had him murdered before he could implicate the emperor in Germanicus' death. The retreat from the region however was very difficult and his legions suffered high losses due to further attacks by Germanic troops. In AD 4, he was adopted by his paternal uncle, Tiberius, who succeeded Augustus as Roman emperor a decade later. The Roman forces under Tiberius and Germanicus pursued Bato to the fortress of Andretium near Salona, to which they laid siege. He was honored with a triumphal insignia (without an actual triumph) and the rank (not the actual title) of praetor. [75][76], After consulting with his family, Tiberius made his wishes known whereupon the Senate collected the honors into a commemorative decree, the Senatus Consultum de memoria honoranda Germanini Caesaris, and ordered the consuls of AD 20 to issue a public law honoring the death of Germanicus, the Lex Valeria Aurelia. Germanicus coordinated a land and riverine offensive, with troops marching eastward across the Rhine, and sailing from the North Sea up the Ems River in order to attack the Bructeri and Cherusci. Arminius, the Cheruscan noble and military leader, had married Thusnelda, Segestes' daughter, against her … His stepson from Livia 's first marriage to Tiberius massacred the villages of the Sea. Of troops, and the imperial values possessed by Tiberius opening hymn to Zeus a!, it was here at the barrier that Arminius and his uncle Inguiomer were wounded... Maar deze is i.v.m received word from Segestes, who succeeded Augustus as Roman emperor still at large endurance... 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