In other words, the application of the principle of non-discrimination contained in article 26 is not limited to those rights which are provided for in the Covenant.’ On this interpretation, under the ICCPR, there is an obligation to ensure that education laws and regulations do not discriminate against women and girls. It should also be pointed out that child marriage is permissible by law in a number of ‘global north’ countries, notably the, Under international law, states are not allowed to refuse access to school by expelling girls on the basis of marriage, pregnancy, or having given birth as this would constitute discrimination. This may be because governments do not have legal and policy frameworks in place to make free education a reality or they do but it is not effectively implemented, or it may not be adequately resourced, or there may be corruption which draws resources away from their intended use. Education is an important tool which equips you to take well informed and meaningful decisions. Higher education was designed for men in colonial America. However, most child marriages and early pregnancies occur during secondary education. Article 4 sets out the conditions for the use of temporary special measures to accelerate de facto equality between men and women. Provisions relating to gender equality in education can be found in both general and specific international treaties, as well as treaties concluded in most regions of the world. From Cairo to Beijing, offering quality and universal education to young girls promotes progress for society as a whole. In the initial phase of our COVID-19 response RM&E work, we took a real-time approach to gathering and analyzing context and implementation data—diagnosing and adapting in short cycles. The accordions below explain the most common barriers woman and girls encounter around the world. For decades, education reform advocates have argued one gender receives better treatment in school and only recently are we seeing the seesaw tip in favor of girls. The right to education of girls is also comprehensively protected by a number of other African treaties. Girls’ education is proven to have a powerful impact on economic growth. At RTE we prefer the term ‘child marriage’ because ‘early’ is a relative term, whereas ‘child’ under international law refers to anyone who has not reached the age of majority, i.e., the age at which someone is considered an adult. Gender-based violence against girls, for instance, rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment and assault, corporal punishment, and harmful practices such as child marriage (see above) and female genital mutilation can keep girls out of school temporarily or indefinitely. According to Plan, a girl in a low income country receiving seven years of education marries four years later on average, and has fewer and healthier children. Lastly Article 16 sets out the rights of women with respects to marriage and family life. China has had the highest children out of school, primary, female since 1991. See our page on Education 2030 for more information. This is particularly true of the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and South East Asia—all regions with high child marriage prevalence rates. Young women are also more likely to be excluded from upper secondary education in the Caucasus and Central Asia, Northern Africa, Southern Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Western Asia. Society: … This includes a prohibition of mandatory pregnancy testing, which has been documented in various African states, including: Tanzania, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Education Plus Development Reimagining girls’ education during COVID-19: Lessons from adapting programs and measures Christine H. Beggs and Lucina Di Meco Thursday, January 7, 2021 Article 2 sets out the legal and policy measures states should undertake to eliminate discrimination against women and therefore applies to the totality of rights found in CEDAW. International law also seeks to empower girls to make decisions for themselves regarding unintended pregnancy and requires that sex, reproductive health, and responsible parenthood education is given to both boys and girls. In such instances, it is usually boys who are favoured because of the low social and economic value placed on the education of girls. Article 2 (a) of CADE permits the establishment or maintenance of gender-segregated educational systems or institutions, provided they offer equivalent access to education, teaching staff with the same standard of qualifications, infrastructure and equipment of the same quality, and the opportunity to study the same or equivalent subjects. In Latin America and Asia, girls who marry before the age of 12 have a reduced likelihood of 21% of completing their secondary education. 15). One of the consequences of austerity and the failure of states to effectively formulate, implement, resource, and enforce free education legal and policy frameworks as per their human rights obligations is the growth of private education providers, mainly in low and middle income countries, but the phenomenon has increasingly been observed in high income countries (see for example, the UK, US, and Sweden). The UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960, CADE) prohibits all forms of discrimination in education, including on the basis of sex. Global figures also neglect the historical exclusion of girls and women from education, reflected in the statistic that two thirds of the world’s 758 million illiterate adults are women. This includes acts or omissions by state actors and bodies, such as public authorities and officials, as well as by non-state actors, for example, partners, family members, teachers, etc. This means that states have legal obligations to remove all discriminatory barriers, whether they exist in law or in everyday life, and to undertake positive measures to bring about equality, including in access of, within, and through education. Boys are considered better suited to maths, technology, the sciences, and sports whereas girls are considered better suited to the arts and humanities. With Asa Butterfield, Gillian Anderson, Ncuti Gatwa, Emma Mackey. For more details, see International instruments - Girls and women's right to education, Right to Education Initiative ©2018. The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women’s General Recommendation 36 on girls’ and women’s right to education elaborates such measures and lays out precise and actionable legal and policy recommendations that would bring states into compliance with obligations flowing from Article 10 and other relevant provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Such steps include administrative, legal, policy, and economic measures. Children who get married are more likely to drop out of school and children who are not in school are more likely to get married. Further, in order to rectify the negative impacts of child marriage and early pregnancy on the right to education, for example, if a girl misses any of her primary education, states must provide fundamental education, that is education that replaces missed primary education for girls who become married or pregnant at primary school age (Article 13 (d), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). SRGBV commonly affects girls on the journey to and from school, where there is little to no supervision, for example, SRGBV also occurs on school premises making the school environment unsafe and not conducive for learning. According to the, A number of factors contribute to girls from poor families not being able to attend school, the biggest of which is the lack of. Intersectional discrimination recognises that women and girls face discrimination in different ways. The most prevalent factor cited was the loss of a job or income, with an average of 41 percent of the 24,260 girls surveyed in May 2020 across eight countries (Figure 3). Benefits of Girl Education. This is particularly true of the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and South East Asia—all regions with high child marriage prevalence rates. Education Matters is an informative, valuable resource for decision makers of both primary and secondary schools Australia-wide. Gender stereotypes and gender stereotyping underpin or exacerbate many of the obstacles faced by women and girls in enjoying their right to education. Prominent examples include the abduction of nearly 300 schoolgirls in April 2014 by Boko Haram in northeast Nigeria and the 2012 shooting of education activist Malala Yousafzai by members of the Taliban in Pakistan (p. 3). They are indeed the future of our nation. The map below illustrates that very few states have set the minimum age of marriage at 18. According to international human rights law, the school environment must not impair the right to education and it must also contribute to the aims of education and the right to a quality education by creating an inclusive and quality learning environment (see paras 10, 19, and 22 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s General Comment 1). Malala Yousafzai (Pashto pronunciation: [məˈlaːlə jusəf ˈzəj]; born 12 July 1997), often referred to mononymously as Malala, is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate. International human rights law imposes specific obligations on states to eliminate harmful gender stereotypes and wrongful gender stereotyping. Lack of free education results in an added financial burden on families, which may come in the form of school fees (or other direct fees) or indirect fees such as for school uniforms, exam fees, security, school transportation, etc. I want to make sure that teenage girls know that if you decide to keep your child, you have to get an education. 36 on girls’ and women’s right to education, Early Marriage and the Right to Education, Fighting for the right to education of pregnant girls in Kenya, RTE’s participation in a Geneva side-event on Education in the 2030 Agenda: leaving no one behind, Forced marriage: A brutal barrier to a child’s education, RTE joins the discussion on accountability, privatisation, and gender equality in education at CIES 2018, Unesco GEM report 2018 gender review launch, UNESCO Interactive Atlas of girls’ and women’s right to education, United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI), Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the same conditions for access to studies and diplomas at all educational levels, in both urban and rural areas. To mitigate this, international human rights law requires states to guarantee free and compulsory primary education, progressively free education at all other levels, and targeted measures for groups at risk of dropping out (for instance, school transportation for students living in rural areas). For example, in Latin America, when women’s participation in the labour market increased 15 percent in just one decade, the rate of poverty decreased by 30 percent (WBG). This is a text widget, which allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. The interaction between gender and other factors, such as poverty, living in rural areas, and/or characteristics, such as physical or mental impairment, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and, Girls and women can face discrimination in all areas and throughout all stages of their life. Girls Not Brides report that 90% of adolescent births in low and lower-middle income countries are to married girls. The right to education, although universal, takes on specific meanings when interpreted and applied in light of shared regional customs, traditions, cultures, values, etc. From a global perspective, as the level of education increases, girls tend to fare slightly better in terms of participation. Since girls form roughly half the population, the importance of girls’ education can hardly be stressed enough. Article 11 (6), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, requires states to take ‘all appropriate measures to ensure that children who become pregnant before completing their education shall have an opportunity to continue with their education on the basis of their individual ability.’ Although this provision would seem to provide for re-entry programmes, the caveat that such opportunity is based on ‘individual ability’ falls short of international standards. It sets forth the normative content in relation to the elimination of discrimination against women and ensuring equal rights with men in the field of education, including: the elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women (see below), the same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants, the same access to programmes of continuing education, including literacy programmes, particularly those aimed at reducing the gender gap in education, the reduction of female student drop-out rates and programmes for women and girls who have left school prematurely, the same opportunity to participate in sports and physical education, access to educational information on health, including advice on family planning. For more information on preventing child marriage and early and unintended pregnancy through education, see Unesco’s Early and unintended pregnancy: Recommendations for the education sector (2017). For example, the Guardian reports that girls from low income families in the UK often miss schools because they cannot afford sanitary products and do not ask for them because of the social stigma attached to menstruation. This includes a prohibition of mandatory pregnancy testing, which has been, Further, in order to rectify the negative impacts of child marriage and early pregnancy on the right to education, for example, if a girl misses any of her primary education, states must provide fundamental education, that is education that replaces missed primary education for girls who become married or pregnant at primary school age (Article 13 (d), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). Under the Protocol states must actively promote: education and training at all levels, in all disciplines, particularly in the sciences and technology, enrolment and retention of girls in formal and non-formal education settings, including fundamental education programmes. Girls require toilets for menstrual hygiene purposes, this includes access to sanitary products, without which girls often miss school because of the social stigma of menstruation, they are unable to concentrate during classes, amongst other reasons. For example, in Western Asia, 20% of adolescent girls remain excluded from lower secondary education compared to 13% of boys. The right to education on the basis of non-discrimination and equality is a recognised right under human rights law. Education can improve the opportunities for women to work, which in turn can impact on poverty reduction. Myriad factors also contribute to the perpetuation of child marriage, including: gender inequality, poverty, gaps in and non-implementation of laws, lack of education, peer pressure, and conflict and. Our existing strategies and processes to track, measure, and learn from our programs were not applicable, so we quickly designed a new RM&E framework, with a focus on efficiency and timeliness. Programmes that allow girls to re-enter education are known as ‘re-entry programmes’. Ostensibly because of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been a trend in governments reducing spending on public services, including education, by decreasing the amount they collect through taxation. Malala almost died because she wanted something to change. Paula Garces Their research also indicates that for every year a girl marries before the age of 18, the likelihood she completes secondary education decreases by 0.22 years on average. This is different to an arranged marriage, where both people are at least 18 years old and have consented to the union. Under international law, exceptions such as these are prohibited. How To Flirt With Your Crush Without Being Too Obvious. Globally, it is estimated that there are 720 million women alive today who were married before the age of 18—that’s 10% of the world’s population. The Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (1994, Convention of Belém do Pará) states that all women have the right to be free from violence which includes the right to freedom from all forms of discrimination and the right to be ‘educated free of stereotyped patterns of behavior and social and cultural practices based on concepts of inferiority or subordination’ (Article 6). support girls education. The factsheet “Education, girl, disability: an equation to solve” builds on the findings of a research conducted by Humanity & Inclusion in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger and conveys messages and recommendations aiming to inspire action and thus improve educational opportunities for girls … Education can improve the opportunities for women to work, which in turn can impact on poverty reduction. Girls and women face specific forms of discrimination in accessing education, within education systems, and through education. Girls’ education is proven to have a powerful impact on economic growth. This is a featured content post. Eliminating discrimination in education is an important start, but women and girls will often continue to face discrimination upon leaving school. Over the ensuing weeks, we worked at a global level to assess the best practices used across countries and brought those practices together into a common set of guidance, which is still evolving. Such fees are a direct barrier to school attendance for many girls, either because families cannot afford these costs or the costs may force families to select which of their children to send to school. Such fees are a direct barrier to school attendance for many girls, either because families cannot afford these costs or the costs may force families to select which of their children to send to school. In its general comment on the right to education, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights applies obligations under Articles 2 (2) and 3 to the right to education, clarifying, inter alia, that temporary measures to bring about de facto equality between the sexes in relation to education are legitimate as long as such affirmative action does not lead to the ‘maintenance of unequal or separate standards for different groups, and provided they are not continued after the objectives for which they were taken have been achieved.’ The Committee also provides that states ‘must closely monitor education–including all relevant policies, institutions, programmes, spending patterns and other practices–so as to identify and take measures to redress any de facto discrimination. The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in its interpretation of Article 24 in General Comment 4 provides that states must identify and remove barriers and put in place specific measures to ensure that the right to education of women and girls with disabilities is not hampered by gender and/or disability-based discrimination, stigma, or prejudice. Votes: 1. Early in the pandemic, our data showed incredibly high levels of risk, with nearly 50 percent of girls surveyed citing at least one risk factor. Although permissible under international law, marriages that occur after the age of 18 may also affect a girl’s education, particularly her ability to access higher education or other forms of tertiary education. Studies have consistently shown that educating girls leads to significant and wide-reaching benefits not only to women themselves and their families but also to their societies and economies. According to a OHCHR report (2013, p. 18), a gender stereotype is harmful when it limits women’s and men’s capacity to develop their personal abilities, pursue their professional careers and make choices about their lives and life plans. A 2010 survey in the Côte d’Ivoire found that, International human rights law prohibits GBV in all settings, including in education. Carla Koppell of the United States Agency for International Development, better known as USAID, even called female education a “silver bullet” for empowerment and progress. How To Flirt With Your Crush Without Being Too Obvious. Article 6 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006, CRPD) recognises that girls with disabilities can be subject to multiple discrimination and obliges states to ‘take all appropriate measures to ensure the full development, advancement, and empowerment of women’ regarding CRPD rights, including the right to education, guaranteed under Article 24. Early marriage is often used synonymously with child marriage. A focus on innovation, speed, and flexibility will be key. Independence: Educated girls do not have to depend on anyone if they are capable of earning their own livelihood and raising their family. This has the effect of excluding girls and boys from certain subjects (sometimes, particularly in gender-segregated schools, certain subjects are not even offered to female students) but also has a detrimental effect on girls’ further educational and employment opportunities, as girls and boys go on to study different subjects at university, where ‘male’ subjects tend to lead to more lucrative and influential careers. It therefore concerns equality of treatment and opportunity as well as the nature of gender relations between female and male students and teachers in educational settings. environment and a life as an independent adult. See also Global Education Monitoring Report’s blog Teachers are central to any effective response to school-related gender-based violence (part 1 and part 2). Education is a universal right. A central concern is whether certification carries the same value and social currency for women as for men. This means that states have an obligation to take deliberate, concrete, and targeted steps, according to maximum available resources, to move expeditiously and effectively towards the full realisation of the right to education. Within the school premises, toilets, especially non-gender segregated toilets, tend to be where girls are most vulnerable to school-related gender-based violence because they are often unsupervised. If girls are educated along with boys, it makes development even more meaningful. After fleeing war-torn South Sudan as a child, Mary Maker found security and hope in the school at Kenya's Kakuma Refugee Camp. International human rights law imposes obligations on states to ensure that private providers do not impair the right to education. Ensuring quality education for all girls also increases how much they can earn and counters the continued feminisation of poverty. This photo exhibition shows the context of girls’ education in Malawi in the 21st century. Educational data should be disaggregated by the prohibited grounds of discrimination.’. Such austerity measures have had a disproportionate impact on women and girls, particularly as it is the most marginalised in society who tend to benefit from public services. For example, in Sub-Saharan Africa 21% of children are out of school—23% of girls do not go to school compared to 19% of boys. Tagged featured Leave a comment. See, for example, Article 10 (h), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and Article 13 (4) (n), African Youth Charter. Top 10 Signs You’re In A Cuffing Season Relationship. The World Bank Group report that parental fears for the safety of girls in traveling to school impact female enrolment rates in Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East. The international community has, through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, recognised the importance of inclusive and quality education (sustainable development goal 4) and gender equality and women’s empowerment (sustainable development goal 5) in achieving sustainable development and has adopted various goals, targets, and indicators that are largely aligned with human rights law.